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Vulvodynia: A Common and Under-Recognized Pain Disorder in Women and Female Adolescents -- Integrating Current Knowledge into Clinical Practice
This is an image of the vulva three months post-vestibulectomy and vaginal advancement. In this type of surgery, the vagina is pulled and sutured to the perineal skin, halfway between the vulvar introitus and the anus so that the sensitive mucosa-skin junction will not be in the introitus itself (128).
Hypnotherapy: Limited findings for hypnotherapy noted significant decrease in pain associated with intercourse and increase in sexual satisfaction in nine women with vestibulodynia (129, 130).
Acupuncture: Limited reports of improvement in vulvar pain and dyspareunia, including one randomized study comparing vulvodynia patients to waitlist controls (133, 134).